||Authors Summary content
A. DeFanti / Maxine Brown
- The "Gigabits
and advance research on the new superbroad band network and
of the high-speed connections.
- Chicago as nerve
centre for the super broadband next generation
- The super networks
nerve centre as one unique brain, full of "data",
in which people will hook to "nourish" them and/or
share knowledge, information and discoveries.
- Impact in the
scientist community and in the economy from the moment the
superbroaband network can carry up to 10 billion bits a second
and this become an established/daily bases technology.
- Is it an utopia
to think that people will develop their need for "sharing"
only because the technology allows it?
- How this networking
achievement can influence the arts and the way of making/shaping
THOMAS A. DeFANTI is director of
the Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL), a distinguished
professor in the department of computer science, and director
of the Software Technologies Research Center at the University
of Illinois at Chicago.DeFanti is an internationally recognized
expert in computer graphics. In the 29 years he has been at
UIC, DeFanti has amassed a number of credits, including: use
of EVL hardware and software for the computer animation produced
for the 1977 "Star Wars" movie;contributor and co-editor
of the 1987 National Science Foundation-sponsored report "Visualization
in Scientific Computing;" recipient of the 1988 ACM Outstanding
Contribution Award; appointed an ACM Fellow in 1994; and appointed
one of several USA technical advisors to the G7 GIBN activity
in 1995. Currently, he is chair of the Internet2 Applications
Strategy Council, and member of the UCAID Board of Trustees;
principal investigator of the NSF Science, Technology and Research
Transit Access Point (STAR TAP/StarLight) and Euro-Link initiatives
to provide a persistent infrastructure to facilitate the long-term
interconnection and interoperability of advanced international
networking; and, recognition along with EVL director Daniel
J. Sandin for conceiving the CAVE virtual reality theater in
MAXINE D. BROWN is an associate
director of the Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL) at
the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), responsible for
the funding, documentation and promotion of its researchactivities.
In 1995 she served as one of several USA technical advisors
to the G7 Global Interoperability of Broadband Networks (GIBN)
activity, which was a precursor to her being co-principal investigator
of the NSF Science, Technology and Research Transit Access Point
(STAR TAP) and Euro-Link initiatives to provide a persistent
infrastructure to facilitate the long-term interconnection and
interoperability of advanced international networking. Brown
was project manager of the SC'95 Information Architecture/I-WAY/GII
Testbed, as well as the iGrid 98, iGrid 2000 and iGrid 2002
high-performance application demonstrations. Along with Tom
DeFanti and Bruce McCormick of Texas A&M University, she
co-edited the landmark National Science Foundation report, "Visualization
in Scientific Computing." Brown has a long history of service
to the computer graphics and supercomputing communities, and
has been active in both the ACM SIGGRAPH organization and the
Supercomputing (SC) conferences. In recognition of her services
to the University and the community at large, Brown was a recipient
of the 1990 UIC Chancellor's Academic Professional Excellence
(CAPE) award, the 1998 ACM SIGGRAPH Outstanding Service Award
and the 2001 UIC Merit Award.
the networking and digital technologies already have a totally
transforming effect on the "arts" and the way
of making/shaping culture?
there in fact a "new" artistic language related
to the networking technology?
makes an electronic-net-art a quality work". Necessary
ingredients of a "quality" piece?
of the North American (USA) contemporary museums and galleries
toward networking and electronic Art.
ideal "net museum".
of New Media Initiatives at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis,
where he created and curates the Centers Gallery 9, a
museum space that exists only on the Web. Dietz Gallery 9 is
a site for project-driven exploration, through digitally based
media, of all things "cyber." This includes artist
commissions, interface experiments, exhibitions, community discussion,
a study collection, hyper-essays, filtered links, lectures and
other guerrilla raids into real space, and collaborations with
- Nature and level
of influences of the networking and digital technologies on
- New artistic
languages related to the networking technology;
... What makes a net piece a quality piece?
- Can the networking
and digital media be used to construct a real poetic language
rather than using it exclusively as a tool for generating
special effects for high-tech-level performance?
- Actual and future
tendencies in the networking art field in Europe.
of Theory and techniques of mass communications at the University
of Bologna and of Theory and techniques of new media at the University
of Florence. Is concerned with systems and idioms of communication
and with new art forms, and since the early '80 has been involved
in new media and new technology applications in communications
and art. He has been professor at the University of Rome "La
Sapienza". He has published the books Realtà del
virtuale, Rappresentazioni tecnologiche,
comunicazione, arte, 1993, on virtual technologies and the relationships
between culture and sensorial representations; Il corpo tecnologico.
L'influenza delle tecnologie sul corpo e sulle sue facoltà, 1994,
on the impact of technologies on the human body; and Arte e tecnologie.
Comunicazione estetica e tecnoscienze, 1996, about art, sciences
and technologies. He founded and directed Noema italian on line
magazine. (in 1994) and directed the first Italian online magazine
(NetMagazine, later MagNet), a research project in Italian, English
and French on the relationships between culture and technologies,
in conjunction with the universities of Bologna and Rome "La
Sapienza", which lasted until December 1997.
to transgenic-net art
- What is the
borderline between art, science technology; what do you considered
art and what technology/ science?
- What is your
vision in relation to the future tendencies in the net-art
field; will it have a sex, a specific nationality, a specific
Kac is internationally recognized for
his interactive net installations and his bio art. A pioneer of
telecommunications art in the pre-Web '80s, Eduardo Kac (pronounced
"Katz") emerged in the early '90s with his radical telepresence
and bio-telematic works. His visionary combination of robotics
and networking explores the fluidity of subject positions in the
post-digital world. His work deals with issues that range from
the mythopoetics of online experience (Uirapuru) to the cultural
impact of biotechnology (Genesis); from the changing condition
of memory in the digital age (Time Capsule) to distributed collective
agency (Teleporting an Unknown State); from the problematic notion
of the "exotic" (Rara Avis) to the creation of life
and evolution (GFP Bunny).
At the dawn of the twenty-first century Kac shocked the world
with his "transgenic art"--first with a groundbreaking
net installation entitled Genesis (1999), which included an "artist's
gene" he invented, and then with his fluorescent rabbit called
Kac merges multiple media and biological processes to create hybrids
from the conventional operations of existing communications systems.
Kac first employed telerobotics in 1986 motivated by a desire
to convert electronic space from a medium of representation to
a medium for remote agency. He creates pieces in which actions
carried out by Internet participants have direct physical manifestation
in a remote gallery space.
Often relying on the indefinite suspension of closure and the
intervention of the participant, his work encourages dialogical
interaction and confronts complex issues concerning identity,
agency, responsibility, and the very possibility of communication.
Kacs work has been exhibited internationally at venues such
as Exit Art and NY Media Arts Center, New York; OK Contemporary
Art Center, Linz, Austria; InterCommunication Center (ICC), Tokyo;
Chicago Art Fair and Julia Friedman Gallery, Chicago; and Museum
of Modern Art, Rio de Janeiro. Kac's work has been showcased in
biennials such as 1st Yokohama Triennial, Japan, 48th International
Venice Biennale, Italy, 1st Mercosul Biennial, Brazil, and 4th
Saint Petersburg Biennial, Russia.
- Do you consider
the Networking technology a useful tool for the work and mission
you are carrying out ? If not why? If yes how?
- How do you perceive
this world of the new technologies; above all that of networking,
of the net, the electronic communication, the e-mail, of the
possibility to communicate, in real time, without requiring
the physical presence in other places and which, in principle,
is born as a highly democratic and open solution on a social
and economic level
- Do you consider
that the "networking" as an alternative way of communicating
in our society
without having to go through the gigantic
powers of communication and of information of the sector
- ¿Do you consider
that networking technologies could contribute in the process
of bringing consciousness, in a democratic way, on a regional
and international level? Has it been of useful for you?
- Do you think
UNESCO has assumed a front-line role within the society of
information as the only agency of the United Nation that monitors
the impact of the new informatics technologies and of communication.
Rigoberta Menchú, 1992
Nobel Peace Prize
"was born on January 9, 1959
to a poor Indian peasant family and raised in the Quiche branch
of the Mayan culture. In her early years she helped with the
family farm work, either in the northern highlands where her
family lived, or on the Pacific coast, where both adults and
children went to pick coffee on the big plantations. Rigoberta
Menchú soon became involved in social reform activities through
the Catholic Church, and became prominent in the women's rights
movement when still only a teenager. Such reform work aroused
considerable opposition in influential circles; especially after
a guerilla organization established itself in the area.
Menchú family was accused of taking part in guerrilla activities
and Rigoberta's father, Vicente, was imprisoned and tortured
for allegedly having participated in the execution of a local
plantation owner. After his release, he joined the recently
founded Committee of the Peasant Union (CUC). In 1979, Rigoberta,
too, joined the CUC. That year her brother was arrested, tortured
and killed by the army. The following year, her father was killed
when security forces in the capital stormed the Spanish Embassy
where he and some other peasants were staying. Shortly afterwards,
her mother also died after having been arrested, tortured and
raped. Rigoberta became increasingly active in the CUC, and
taught herself Spanish as well as other Mayan languages than
her native Quiche. In 1980, she figured prominently in a strike
the CUC organized for better conditions for farm workers on
the Pacific coast, and on May 1, 1981, she was active in large
demonstrations in the capital. She joined the radical 31st of
January Popular Front, in which her contribution chiefly consisted
of educating the Indian peasant population in resistance to
massive military oppression. In 1981, Rigoberta Menchú had to
go into hiding in Guatemala, and then flee to Mexico. That marked
the beginning of a new phase in her life: as the organizer abroad
of resistance to oppression in Guatemala and the struggle for
Indian peasant peoples' rights. In 1982, she took part in the
founding of the joint opposition body, The United Representation
of the Guatemalan Opposition (RUOG). In 1983, she told her life
story to Elisabeth Burgos Debray. Her work has earned her several
international awards. From Les Prix Nobel 1992."
- GAIA, Mother
earth·as an integrated networking metaphor.
- Poetic parallelism
between Gaia the "super cell" and it·s nervous system
definable as the basic organizational intelligence-response
mechanism in relation to the "networking" as a multi-cellular
and poet·actively engaged in culture and arts in Latin America
in the capacity of editor and journalist. She was responsible
for the literature section of the Journal "El Diario de
Caracas". She also directed the cultural section of the
daily newspaper "El Universal". Founder and director
of the editorial specialized in feminine authors; narrative
and poetry. Editor of the publications of International Theatre
Festival. She is the author of the following books: "Libros
Poemas del Trópico" (1993), "El Ojo de la Orca (1997,
"Poemas Inéditos" (2002) and "Días Concretos"
Tendencies in the
net art forms produced and created by women.
- Who is doing
what and how? Why these authors are innovative?
BOSCO is an Italian journalist specialized
in art. Since twelve years now she is a correspondent, stationed
in Spain, for the magazines of the editorial Agostini-Rizzoli,
and writes regularly in "Sette", the magazine of the
Italian daily newspaper "Il Corriere della Sera".
She has been as well correspondent for "Il Giornale dell'Arte"
until the creation, in June of 1997, of "El Periodico del
Arte", the Spanish edition of the network, where she is
at the present stationed as correspondent from Cataluña. Since
December of 1998, she works in CiberP@is, the weekly magazine
about art and new technologies of the Spanish daily newspaper,
"El Pais", with articles on digital art and multimedia
culture, carried out together with Stefano Caldana. She writes
as well in the monthly issue of CiberP@is since its creation,
in June of 2000. Throughout her career she has collaborated
with numerous publications, Italians as well as Spanish (from
Vogue to Ajoblanco).
She is co-author with Stefano Caldana of ARTE.RED , a navigable
history of the net.art carried out for "El Pais Digital".
The body and its
relationship with technology through human/machine interface
incorporating the Internet and Web, sound, music, video and
uses medical instruments, prosthetics, Virtual Reality systems
and the Internet to explore, extend and enhance the body's operational
parameters. He has interactivly performed with a Thirds Hand,
Robor Manipulaters, a Virtual Arm, a Virtual Body and a Stomach
Sculpture. He has also developed a touch screen interfaced Multiple
Muscle Stimulation system, enabling remote access, actuation and
choreography of the body. Performances such us Ping Body and parasite
probe notions of telematic scaling and the engineering of the
extended, external and virtual nervous systems for the body using
the Internet. He has visually probed and acoustically amplified
He has focused his work on his own body. He attached a third (robotic)
arm to his right arm, only to expand his suspension events into
complex performances that have evolved cyborg and post-human metaphors,
raising the issue of evolution and adaptation in our highly technological
environment. Since 1981 Stelarc has been creating amplified body
performances in which he expands the power and reach of the human
body by wiring it to electronic devices and telecommunications
systems. In these performances he has combined the Third Hand
with many other technological components, including sensing devices
conventionally used in medicine. On occasion Stelarc has also
performed in the company of industrial robotic arms. More recently
he has also used prosthetic technologies that physically wire
his body and enable remote and direct muscle stimulation, which
result in involuntary gestures and body motions uncontrollable
by the artist.
The networking technology as creative and social tool for the
indigenous of the Amazonas.
- Why their system
and their use and approaching the networking technology can
also be considered a paradigmatic model?
- The planet as
a "living art body" with its own life, reality,
fragility and feelings.
- Is the networking
technology actually working as common and accessible media
of communication that interconnect non-local territories,
citizens of the planet, expanding the knowledge, exchanging
information, communicating between remote geographical areas?
- UNESCO "front-line
role" within the society of information and the impact
of the new informatics technologies and of communication.
Reducing the growing gap between info-rich and info-poor.
psychologist, ecologist, journalist and writer. Founder of GEMA,
a group that deals with social and cultural issues, ecology, environment
and digital technology. Trujillo is actively involved in indigenous
affairs that include: rights and the use of technologies of networking
within the indigenous communities, in the Amazons and worldwide.
the present she acts as assistant to the Deputy, in representation
of the indigenous community, Noeli Pocaterra who occupies
the second Vice Presidency of the national assembly of Venezuela
and which has permitted her, in the last few years, to have
first hand knowledge and provided her with ample facts of the
social realities of these groups. These activities are carried
out in part, with advisory missions and support to the indigenous
representations in the Venezuelan Amazon of the Yanomami
tribe, the Wayuu tribe in the Guajira, the Waraos
of the Delta of Orinoco, with the Pume in Apure and the
Pemones in La Gran Sabana, etc. She works with the theme
"Human Rights and Foreign Debt"
methods of analysis and ways for expanding the vision and consciousness
related to ecology.
work experience with groups, in social areas, urban and indigenous
communities and groups of women and children. She has prepared
scripts, on the ecological theme, for video and has written
the books "Lo Oculto en lo Feminino" and relating
to the rescue of the feminine principle in our way of life "La
Voz del Silencio".
Launched by the Division of Arts and Cultural Enterprise of UNESCO,
(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
- To promote information
exchange in the digital art field;
- To create the
basis of a new culture which uses all forms of media arts
the computer arts and electronic arts as a tool for artistic
creation, communication and dissemination of knowledge.
- To establish
a network within institutions, universities, artists and practitioners
in the field of digital arts.
- To promote intercultural
Structure and Content
of the Digit-Arts Portal
and Research: History and aesthetics of artistic, scientific
and technical movements relating to digital and electronic
and Information: Virtual library on the electronic arts
and creation of a newsletter;
and Capacity Building: Best practices and directory of
and Partnerships: Creation of a space for interdisciplinary
research and experimentation;
Learning: Research on collaborative tools;
and Creation: The dissemination of tools for electronic
creation for young people, both in and out of school.
UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization, was established on 16th of November 1945.It has
its headquarters in Paris, France and 56 field offices and units
in different parts of the world.
The Constitution of UNESCO was signed in London on 16 November
1945 by 37 countries and came into force on 4 November 1946
following ratification by 20 of its signatories.
The purpose of the Organization was defined as: "to contribute
to peace and security by promoting collaboration among nations
through education, science and culture in order to further universal
respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights
and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples
of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or
religion, by the Charter of the United Nations".
Three bodies comprise UNESCO:
The GENERAL CONFERENCE of Member States, UNESCO's supreme governing
body, meets, in general, every two years. Following the principle
of one vote per country, the General Conference approves the
Organization's Program and Budget.
The EXECUTIVE BOARD, composed of 58 representatives of Member
States, meets generally twice a year. Acting as a kind of administrative
council, it prepares the work of the General Conference and
is responsible for effective execution of conference decisions.
The SECRETARIAT is the Organization's executive branch. Under
the authority of the Director-General, elected for a 6-year
term, the staff implement the programme adopted by Member States.
The General Conference is the main decision-making body of UNESCO.
It meets every two years and determines the policies of the
Organization and approves its programme and budget. Every six
years it appoints the Director-General upon the recommendation
of the Executive Board. The Executive Board is composed of 58
Members and meets twice a year. It is responsible for the execution
of the program adopted by the General Conference.
The Secretariat consists of the Director-General and the staff
appointed by him. The Director-General prepares the draft program
and budget and formulates proposals for appropriate action.
Five programme sectors work in collaboration with the administrative
and support services to carry out the programme. There are at
present 73 UNESCO field offices and units in different parts
of the world. The number of staff members working in the field
offices and in field projects is 614 and 51 respectively, as
compared with 1,717 staff members at Headquarters.
Forms of action
Establishment of international standards: conventions, agreements,
recommendations, declarations; conferences and meetings; studies
and research; publications: books, periodicals, reports and
documents; technical and advisory services to Member States:
staff missions, consultants, supplies and equipment; training
courses, seminars and workshops; subventions to NGOs; financial
contributions; fellowships, study grants and travel grants;
- What is Art
in the Networking digital Era??
Borderline between art and technology: what is art and what
- Are the programming
and the "codes" also a form of art and or an art
- Has the emerging
technology and the new arts forms become an exclusionist technology,
afforded by tech-countries, rich communities solid financial
institutions and "info-rich authors".
- Is the desired
"new electronic global village" limit to a very
selective electronic community, perhaps is global enough,
but it is not a village?
- What about the
authors, artist and new media art of the "info-poor countries"?
- Actual and future
tendencies in the international networking art field?
theoretician, writer, producer, professor and digital author who
explores the cultural implications of new technologies. His interactive
installations & performances have been shown internationally
in galleries and SIGGRAPH, CHI, NCGA, Ars Electronica, and V2
art shows. His computer mediated art works probe issues such as
World Wide Web &telecommunications; artificial intelligence
and robotics; hypermedia and the structure of information; GPS
and the sense of place; synthetic voice; and biological &
environmental sensing. He won the Prize of Distinction in Ars
Electronica's international competitions for interactive art and
several honorary mentions. He is Head of the Conceptual/Information
Arts program at San Francisco State University. He has published
four books, Using Computers to Create Art (Prentice Hall, 1986),
Multimedia Design with HyperCard (Prentice Hall, 1991), and World
Wide Design Guide (Hayden, 1995), which promotes an experimental,
culturally aware approach to Web design. His last book: "Information
Arts: Intersections of Art, Science and Technology" published
by MIT Press in November, 2001 surveys artists, theorists, and
researchers working in advanced inquiries in fields such as biology,
medicine, physics, artificial life, telepresence, body sensors,
VR, artificial intelligence, and information systems.